Groundwater fluoride and health problem was meticulously studied for dental and skeleton fluorosis except few studies on urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is multi-factorial disease and excess fluoride consumption is one of the causal factors. In view of this, increase of fluoride in groundwater is reported in semiarid Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India. To understand the fluoride and urolithiasis association, present study was carried out in Karha river basin of DVP region. Three stages of data generation were adopted for present study such as procuring of medical records of urolithiasis, previous groundwater chemistry data and geochemical investigation of 50 groundwater samples from representative villages. Further, these variables were used for correlation analysis, temporal and spatial distribution to find out their relationships. Result shows medical records of hospitals indicating the gradual increase in urolithiasis is reported during drought situations. In temporal variation, annual fluoride concentration of groundwater and hot days are positively correlated with annual urolith patients as well as spatial study supports the same. In conclusion, present study highlights the relationship of urolith formation with number of hot days, groundwater electrical conductivity and fluoride. However, detailed biomedical study may lead towards understanding of fluoride- urolithiasis relationship.
Detection and delineation of Water Body Area (WBA), particularly over inaccessible hilly region is not always possible in view of time, resources and cost issues. An automated procedure for detection and delineation of water bodies in the hilly region was performed using satellite-derived DEMs. CartoDEM, SRTM and ASTER GDEM data with 30, 90 and 30 m resolutions, respectively to generate the Elevation Points Features (EPF) in GIS platform. Total 7194906 EPFs were generated using these three DEMs. Contour and slope maps were also prepared to eliminate the outlier EPFs (non-water bodies) with flattered surface logic. Flattened area on DEMs, connected contour at edges of water bodies and 0° to 0.5° slopping area were considered as WBA in the region (2311 Km2) of Western Ghat (India). The nearest neighbor to cubic convolution conversion of DEMs was found useful for detection of boundary of water bodies more precisely. These results were validated from Landsat-8 satellite images and topographic maps (Survey of India). About 3.09% from CartoDEM, 2.22% area from ASTER GDEM and 4.38% from SRTM DEM were estimated as WBA. CartoDEM data can be suggested for precise detection of smaller water bodies in hilly region. Methodology formulated in this study could be used as a rapid assessment tool for detection of water bodies, especially in the inaccessible region for better water resources management.
The term ‘sex workers’ refers to those involved in prostitution. This particular term is preferred as it does not have the derogatory, sexist connotation that the term ‘prostitute’ has. Belonging to a highly stigmatized profession with no financial and familial support forthcoming, the latter years of the lives of destitute female sex workers are spent in abject misery and poverty. Effort has been made to study the socio economic status and the ways adopted by these women, post active prostitution period, to support themselves and their families. This paper is based on the field study conducted in central Delhi red light area during August-September, 2016. Direct interviews with the respondents using questionnaires as well as participant observation techniques were used to collect the data. The study indicate that destitute female sex workers, once out of active prostitution, start working as domestic helpers, work with local voluntary organizations, or as helpers in brothels. The income earned is very meager with hardly any amount left to be saved. Most of the women live in one room rented accommodations. Their access to medical facilities was found to be extremely restricted.
Every commodity or goods has intake of water i.e. either in processing or furnished stage. Thus, the present study propensities macro-level (states-level) water footprint (WFP) assessment of selected eight crops namely, Wheat, Barley, Maize, Millets, Rice, Sorghum, Soybeans and Tea. The aim of present research is to assess water use in selected crops at field level. In addition, the spatial evaluation at state level also considered as one of the significant objective to understand regional disparity and/or similarly. Methodology and approach of assessment was adopted from Water Footprint Assessment Manual (2011). Data was collected from state Agricultural Directorate, National Bureau of Soil Survey and landuse, published reports and online database such as FAOSTAT, WMO, WFN, and agriculture census. Results show that green component of WFP contributes large fraction as about 72 percent, while blue and grey component amounted of about 19 and 9 percent of the total water consumption, respectively. Moreover, spatial variability of blue, green and grey among the states assimilated by soil regime and climate barriers. Supply of blue water is high where the region imparted to semi-arid or arid land. Consequently, a balanced approach between green and blue water use has been recommended in the present study to address increasing water demand in the future.
The present paper looks at the history of development and empowerment and discusses the impediments to development and empowerment in India. It focuses on the three major issues in India today, namely, the attitude towards, Girl child, Gender violence and Globalization, which have to be dealt with as a priority in bringing out the development and empowerment of women in the present era. If we look back into the history about the discussions and debates related to the issue of development and empowerment, we can see some broad trends. The whole debate on development states that there were number of women who organized and mobilizing around the globe for their rights. The development planners and policy makers did not have any interaction with these groups and they considered feminism as irrelevant to development and it was viewed as a luxury for the better of women in the industrialized countries. Hence, the first stage, main stream development models gave rise to jargons like, “basic human needs”, “meeting the needs of the poorest of poor”, “growth with equity”. This phase viewed development as an administrative problem whose solution lay in transferring vast amount of resources and technological innovations from rich to poor countries. As compensation to this followed, integrating women into the development process. Education and employment as a means of income generation became indicators of women’s involvement in the development process, but again under this phase a large chunk of rural women were left behind. Today women have addressed the question of development from a feminist perspective. They have raised important questions on issues of child care, reproductive rights, violence against women, family planning, transfer of technology and rural development and given the concept of development a new meaning. If development leads only to an increase in production, then it tends to reinforce and exaggerate the imbalances and inequalities within and in between societies. Development has to be an integral process with economic, social and cultural aspects leading to the control of one’s life situation.