Estimation of hydraulic parameters in coastal aquifers is an important task in groundwater resource assessment and development. An attempt is made to estimate these parameters using geoelectrical data in combination with pore-water resistivity of existing wells. In the present study, 29 resistivity soundings were analysed along with 29 water samples, collected from the respective dug wells and boreholes, in order to compute hydraulic parameters like formation factor, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity from coastal region of north Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India. The result shows some parts of the study area reveal relatively high value of hydraulic conductivity, porosity and transmissivity. Further, a negative correlation is seen between hydraulic conductivity and bulk resistivity. The hydraulic conductivity is found to vary between 0.014 and 293 m/day, and the transmissivity varied between 0.14 and 11,722 m2/day. The transmissivity values observed here are in good correspondence with those obtained from pumping test data of Central Ground Water Board. These zones also have high aquifer thickness and therefore characterize high potential within the water-bearing formation. A linear, positive relationship between transverse resistance and transmissivity is observed, suggesting increase in transverse resistance values indicate high transmissivity of aquifers. These relations will be extremely vital in characterization of aquifer system, especially from crystalline hard rock area.
Fictional medium is really very useful to know reality of society. Literature and visual art used realistically to depict several methods in which perfect description of feminism is the aim. The novel is depiction of day to day life, custom and the woman is portrayed as the key figure of Indian families and at the same time, she has been projected as the subject of suffering domestic slavery and suppression. Native feminism in India is not as aggressive as feminism in the West. Patriarchy is another name of native feminism reflected in the novels; through self-realization, it is expected that the woman can emerge as a new woman. The social realist writers have been very much interested in recording social changes and the status of women. Industrialization, urbanization and globalization have brought considerable changes in social life and status of women in India. Position of educated women is quite better than illiterate but gender discrimination still persists. To face all hurdles of their life the next generation women very boldly and intelligently achieve their aims to get their identity.
Most of the industrial sewage effluents used for irrigation contains heavy metals which cause toxicity to crop plants as the soils are able to accumulate heavy metal for many years. The vegetables grown for the present study were irrigated with treated wastewater brought from a nearby full-scale sewage treatment plant at different compositions along with tap water as a control. The concentration levels of the Cd, Co, Cu, Mn and Zn in the soil were found to below the toxic limits as prescribed in literature. Daily Intake Metals (DIM) values suggest that the consumption of plants grown in treated wastewater and tap water is nearly free of risks, as the dietary intake limits of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn. The Enrichment Factor for the treated wastewater irrigated soil was found in order Zn> Ni> Pb> Cr> Cu> Co> Mn> Cd. Thus, treated wastewater can be effectively used for irrigation. This will have twofold significant environmental advantages: (1) helpful to reduce the groundwater usage for irrigation and (2) helpful to reduce the stress on surface water resources.