Identification of soil water conservation structures (SWCs) necessitates as the proximity of study area (Shivganga watershed) to the Western Ghats imparts high rainfall and runoff, resulting to accelerate soil erosion. To decrease soil erosion and improve water storage as well as recharge, the investigation of new possible structures is necessary. With this intent, suitable sites for SWC structures (check dam and percolation ponds) were identified by using hydro-spatial data such as soil, land use/cover, slope, runoff, infiltration data from IRS P6 LISS-IV imagery and other collateral data. Further, acquired data were processed to derive runoff by employing Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method and infiltration by Allen (2008) method. The Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) specifications were used for the identification of locations for constructing SWC structures. The results revealed that about 28% area is suitable for implementation of SWC structures. Total 45 locations SWC structures were derived with the present method, out of that 20 were already built. The superimposition of derived and existing locations shows (80-100%) accuracy, authenticates the reliability of the method. The present modified method will definitely help in speedy identification of a location for SWC structures.
Geographic Information System (GIS) today supports health and disease mapping in diverse ways. Present study divulges geographic dimensions of malaria disease in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states located in Central India. Chhattisgarh is second and Madhya Pradesh is the third most malarious states after Odisha in India. In the present study, an attempt is made to map climate-based malaria transmission suitability using fuzzy logic for Central India. Temperature and relative humidity were selected as the two indicators for malaria transmission suitability analysis. District wise meteorological data for 2008 was used for the present study. Monthly temperature and relative humidity interpolation maps were generated using ‘Natural Neighbor’ interpolation algorithm. For both the indicators trapezoidal membership function was selected. Arc GIS software and its FUZZY tool were used to generate ‘climate suitability map’ for malaria transmission depicting the spatial distribution of Transmission Window length (in months) across the region. The findings illustrate that most districts of Chattisgarh and very few districts of Madhya Pradesh have transmission window open for more than 10 months and are identified as ‘High Endemic Regions’. Compared to Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh experiences more numbers of least suitable months i.e. February, March, April and May. The study aims to benefit judicious decision making for efficient intervention implementation.
This article analyses the reproductive health problems and health care seeking behaviour of women pavement dwellers in the Pune Municipal Corporation area (India). This study is based on primary information collected from 258 women of reproductive age group. The study shows that about 45 % women have used formal medical facility for deliveries, 56% lactating women were registered and received TT injections, and 34.7% women were covered complete ANC [Antenatal Care]. Many women have complained about the problems related to the reproductive tract diseases like itching, irritation on the reproductive tract and white discharge. Overall occupational and social conditions are negatively affecting their health. Unstable and invisible citizenship makes them inaccessible to public health services and basic facilities like housing, sanitation, personal hygiene and food also.
Groundwater fluoride and health problem was meticulously studied for dental and skeleton fluorosis except few studies on urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is multi-factorial disease and excess fluoride consumption is one of the causal factors. In view of this, increase of fluoride in groundwater is reported in semiarid Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India. To understand the fluoride and urolithiasis association, present study was carried out in Karha river basin of DVP region. Three stages of data generation were adopted for present study such as procuring of medical records of urolithiasis, previous groundwater chemistry data and geochemical investigation of 50 groundwater samples from representative villages. Further, these variables were used for correlation analysis, temporal and spatial distribution to find out their relationships. Result shows medical records of hospitals indicating the gradual increase in urolithiasis is reported during drought situations. In temporal variation, annual fluoride concentration of groundwater and hot days are positively correlated with annual urolith patients as well as spatial study supports the same. In conclusion, present study highlights the relationship of urolith formation with number of hot days, groundwater electrical conductivity and fluoride. However, detailed biomedical study may lead towards understanding of fluoride- urolithiasis relationship.
Detection and delineation of Water Body Area (WBA), particularly over inaccessible hilly region is not always possible in view of time, resources and cost issues. An automated procedure for detection and delineation of water bodies in the hilly region was performed using satellite-derived DEMs. CartoDEM, SRTM and ASTER GDEM data with 30, 90 and 30 m resolutions, respectively to generate the Elevation Points Features (EPF) in GIS platform. Total 7194906 EPFs were generated using these three DEMs. Contour and slope maps were also prepared to eliminate the outlier EPFs (non-water bodies) with flattered surface logic. Flattened area on DEMs, connected contour at edges of water bodies and 0° to 0.5° slopping area were considered as WBA in the region (2311 Km2) of Western Ghat (India). The nearest neighbor to cubic convolution conversion of DEMs was found useful for detection of boundary of water bodies more precisely. These results were validated from Landsat-8 satellite images and topographic maps (Survey of India). About 3.09% from CartoDEM, 2.22% area from ASTER GDEM and 4.38% from SRTM DEM were estimated as WBA. CartoDEM data can be suggested for precise detection of smaller water bodies in hilly region. Methodology formulated in this study could be used as a rapid assessment tool for detection of water bodies, especially in the inaccessible region for better water resources management.