Extensive industrialization in the southern part of Gujarat is characterized by regional pollution of soil and water resources. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken in Ankaleshwar, one of the biggest industrial townships of India. About, 25 surface sediment /soil samples were collected from top 10 cm representing entire study area and were analyzed for heavy metals by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The heavy metals concentrations were compared with the standard shale to find out pollution index (PI), results shows the significant enrichment for arsenic, moderate enrichment for Pb and minimal enrichment for metals in descending order as Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Co>Zn>Cu>Mo. Physico-chemical properties such as texture, cation exchange capacity, total carbonate and organic matter, as well as the percentages of the sand, silt, and clay fractions have been examined. It is observed that heavy metals like Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo show a positive correlation with the silt size fraction. Similarly, Mn, Cr, As, and Pb show positive correlation with clay size fraction. Chemical properties like EC, CEC and organic matter have control over majority of heavy metals. High correlation with these properties suggests that higher ionic conductivity soils have high heavy metal content. The effect of these properties can be arranged in descending order as follows: EC >OM > Clay % >Silt % > CEC.
The present research paper is an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of the female characters in Joseph Conrad’s well-known novella Heart of Darkness. The real interest of this study lies in what Conrad has to say about female characters, conduct and also the way in which he projects them.
Thus, I have here attempted to examine the female characters in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, to set these characters against their male counterparts, and so, to allow an increased awareness of the depiction of female characters as submissive, dominated by men, often deceived by others and with lack of their own identity. Clearly, it would be little short of a marathon task to do the study of all Conrad’s major fictions with feministic perspective, and so, this study limits its concern to his masterpiece novella such as Heart of Darkness.
Artificial recharge plays a prominent role in the sustainable management of groundwater resources. The study has proposed a methodology to viable artificial recharge structure using geographical information system (GIS) and empirical equation techniques for augmenting groundwater resources in the Ranchi urban and rural area of Ranchi District, Jharkhand. The thematic layers for geomorphology, drainage density, order of streams, runoff and trend has been prepared in the GIS environment using convection and remote sensing data. It has been found that the slope and topographic gradient of Ranchi region is one of the major governing factors, which restricts to hold surface water stagnant. Jumar watershed is found as the most feasible watershed for the construction of check dams/percolation tanks followed by Lower Subarnarekha watershed. Out of 15 deeper exploratory wells, 14 are declining. Harmu watershed is found to be in the worst condition in terms of availability of runoff water. Harmu, Kanke, Bariyatu, Namkum, Doranda, Hinoo and Hatia have found as the most suitable locations for installation of RTRWH within the Ranchi urban area. Based on the available field information, check dams are suggested as the most promising artificial recharge structures for Ranchi rural environment.
Drought is a water related climatic natural disaster affecting wide range of environmental, biological and social factors. Short, poor and delayed rainfall in 2015 caused critical water shortage, livestock causality and decline in milk production in the pastoral areas of Ethiopia. The relationship between rainfall and vegetation indices was analyzed to identify drought-vulnerable areas in Afar region of Ethiopia using 11 years time series of decadal NDVI, VCI, DSI and SPI using SPOT (2005-2013) and PROVA-V (2014-2015) data. For the validation of drought indices, correlation and regression analyses between NDVI and rainfall (r = 75%), NDVI and crop yield, and VCI and rainfall (r = 90%) were done. The findings showed that there was extreme drought in the Afar region in 2005, 2009, 2011 and 2015. The region was highly prone to drought, even though its severity levels varied in different years. Drought was severe, longer and intense in most of the areas in the region, adversely affecting agricultural productivity and livestock maintenance and management. Assessments of such natural disasters are useful to plan mitigative measures in advance for effective management programmes, including drought hazards.
Groundwater is an important source of drinking water in rural parts of India. Because of the increasing demand for water, it is essential to identify new sources for the sustainable development of this resource. The potential mapping and exploration of groundwater resources have become a breakthrough in the field of hydrogeological research. In the present paper, a groundwater prospects map is delineated for the assessment of groundwater availability in Kar basin on basaltic terrain, using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Various thematic layers such as geology, slope, soil, geomorphology, drainage density and rainfall are prepared using satellite data, topographic maps and field data. The ranks and weights were assigned to each thematic layer and various categories of those thematic layers using AHP technique respectively. Further, a weighted overlay analysis was performed by reclassifying them in the GIS environment to prepare the groundwater potential map of the study area. The results show that groundwater prospects map classified into three classes low, moderate and high having area 17.12%, 38.26%, 44.62%, respectively. The overlay map with the groundwater potential zones in the study area has been found to be helpful for better planning and managing the resources.