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Assessment of Groundwater Geochemistry of Vel River basin, Western Maharashtra, India

Hydrospatial Analysis

4 (2020)



Chemical Concentrations , Geochemistry , Groundwater , Physicochemical Parameters , Vel River basin

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To study the chemistry of major ion in groundwater from Vel (Velu) River basin, sixty (60) samples of dug wells and bore wells were collected and analyzed using standard techniques given by APHA. It shows order of dominance for cations, Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and in anionic concentration as HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- in groundwater. The pH of groundwater is slightly alkaline (range: pH 7.0 - 8.1), while average values of Electrical Conductivity (EC) is about 2641 µS/cm indicating high mineralization of groundwater. In general, the cationic concentration (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) of the groundwater increase in the downstream side (from Northwest to South east), suggesting geological control on the composition of groundwater while highest concentration is in lower part of the basin are generally associated with the high salinity. In the major anions, bicarbonate (HCO3-) is higher due to rock-water interaction. Average value of chloride is about of 235 mg/L due to discharge zones along with anthropogenic activities. The geochemical data plotted on Piper Trilinear Diagram is showing dominant hydro-chemical facies: Ca2++Mg2+, Na++ K+, Cl-+ SO42- -HCO3- found in 83.3 % samples indicating the alkaline earth exceeding the alkalis and the strong acids exceeds the weak acids. The pH, Total Hardness (TH) and Magnesium (Mg2+) of the samples show more proportion of samples falling above desirable limit. Otherwise the quality of groundwater is good for drinking. The irrigation indices like SAR, KR and SSP were considered to evaluate groundwater suitability for irrigation. Comparing with SAR parameter all samples are excellent to good for irrigation. In SSP, 33.3 % samples are within permissible, while 66.6% samples are doubtful for irrigation purpose. In KR almost all samples (excluding 04 samples in lower side of basin) are suitable for irrigation. So, variations in climate, geology with anthropogenic activities are modifying the groundwater geochemistry of Vel River Basin.

Area under study is covered with Deccan Basalt and aquifers are mostly fractured and compact in upper and middle part of the basin.

Most predominant cations are Na and Ca followed by Mg while in anions HCO3, and Cl are dominant anions than SO4.

The dominant hydrochemical facies Ca+Mg, Na+K; Cl+SO4 HCO3 facies, found in 83.3 % samples indicating the alkaline earth is exceeding the alkalis and the strong acids exceeds the weak acids.

The data compared with World Health Organization standards found that pH, Total Hardness (TH) and Magnesium (Mg) of the samples are more % of samples falling above Desirable limit.

Different parameters like Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP) and Kelly ratio (KR) have been calculated to analyse the quality of water for irrigation.

In SSP, 33.3 % samples are permissible, while 66.6% samples are doubtful for irrigation purpose.


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