Low Back Pain (LBP) is considered one of the most frequently reported causes of visits to healthcare establishments. In India, the prevalence of LBP is alarming with approximately 60% of people suffering from LBP. It has been observed that most people have experienced back discomfort at least once in their lives. Globally, LBP features amongst work-related disorders as a frequently prevailing issue in occupational settings. In the Indian scenario, the prevalence of LBP is generally found to be gender-specific. Females are reported to suffer more from LBP than males in the same working environment. Recent research suggests that school teachers exhibit a higher prevalence of LBP issues. Therefore, the present study focuses on enquiring about the occurrence of LBP and understanding the associated risk factors among female teachers. Simple random sampling is used to identify schools in 5 urban units of the Srinagar district. Binary logistic regression is employed to identify the risk factors, both at the workplace and at home. Married females (58.33 %) complained of LBP more than unmarried ones. At the workplace, prolonged standing (40%) was the most common self-reported risk factor for LBP. In general, prolonged standing, teaching hours, and mental health were found to be the three statistically significant risk factors contributing to LBP at the workplace. Amongst all the activities at home, domestic chores carried out by females (married and unmarried both) were the highest self-reported risk factor (78%), married women at 82.14% and unmarried women at 75.9%. The same was found statistically significant along with the additional factor being professional work done at home. The study establishes the need for a comprehensive strategy and preventive interventions in lowering the prevalence of LBP disability, especially among teachers, given the immense role they play in shaping our society.
The spatiotemporal fluctuation of Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) is important for prediction of weather, modeling of hydrological cycle, water management, agricultural managing and making strategy. Optical remote sensing has demonstrated significant promise for precise surface soil moisture estimate. The study aimed to estimate the moisture content in the upper layer of agricultural fields using Landsat 8 OLI, Sentinel-2A multi-spectral satellite data as well as TVDI [Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index] data. The spatial resolution of the Landsat OLI and Sentinel-2A images was 30m and 10m, respectively. The spectral Thermal Infrared (TIR 10.9µm ), TIR (10.9µm) and along with the Short-Wave-Infrared (SWIR 2.2µm) band of the Landsat 8 and the Shore-Wave-Infrared (SWIR 2.2 µm) band of sentinel 2B satellite imagery was utilized to estimate how moist was topsoil of the agricultural lands. The soil moisture estimates using remote sensing based model were acquired and compared with in-situ soil moisture. In a depth of 10cm below the surface, the field-based soil moisture was measured. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST) and TVDI were measured to estimate moisture content. The reflectance values of the TVDI show over the study area generally low, with the values ranging from -0.07 to 1.37. The statistical tests of TVDI values and gravimetric soil moisture values presented a positive correlation with RMSE= 0.17. The results of the study can give insight of better hydrological modeling, management of agriculture and policy making. However, further research is required to validate the methodology over a larger geographical area and to evaluate the preciseness of the assessed SSM at various depths of the soil.
This article aims at studying how Islamic feminism has enriched and pluralized feminist research through underscoring its particularity and ability to address the Muslim woman’s quest for equality based on the Islamic referentiality and away from the Universalist feminist discourse. Thus, this paper argues that Islamic feminists draw their agency first from devising female-inclusive hermeneutics of the Islamic foundational texts which enables them to deconstruct the canonized dominant religious patriarchal discourses and second from manifesting the ability to depart from the mainstream Western feminism. I use the postmodernism ‒especially the features of the waning of affect and the weakening of the role of public history‒ to explore Islamic feminism’s heterogeneous alternative approaches to the sacred texts and the Muslim woman’s empowerment. This paper finds out that Islamic feminism is itself endowed with plurality and difference as it utilizes diversified approaches.
The study of spatial distribution of precipitation is an important aspect of water-related research like, hydrological modeling, disaster prediction and watershed management. But, spatial interpolations of annual average rainfall in Ethiopia using Simple and Universal Kriging type through different models has not yet investigated. This study was focused on to select the best fit semivarogram model for annual rainfall interpolation and to map the spatial distribution of rainfall of Ethiopia. In this study, long term mean annual rainfall which was collected from 931 meteorological station were interpolated using different mathematical variogram models of Kriging to select the best fit variogram model useful to predict continuous surface values of annual average rainfall in Ethiopia. Spherical model was found to be the best fitted variogram model and most accurate model for interpolation using both Simple and Universal Kriging with the value of ME (0.005), RMSE (1.21) and MSDR (121.32) and ME (0.001), RMSE (0.88) and MSDR (144.11), respectively. Since the kriging results of spherical model indicate good model efficacy for this study, it may be useful to map spatial pattern of annual rainfall in Basin level in Ethiopia.
The concerns over land use and land cover (LULC) change have emerged on the global stage due to realization that changes occurring on the land surface also influence climate, ecosystem and its services. This study aimed to map the temporal dynamic of LULC patterns and LST in the Jarmet wetland in Ethiopia. The dynamics and pattern of changes for a period of 21 years (2000-2021) were analyzed using geospatial techniques. Multi-temporal satellite images from Landsat ETM+ and Landsat-8 OLI sensor data were used to extract land-cover maps. The Land Surface Temperature (LST) trend of the study areas was computed using MODIS satellite imagery (2000-2021). Supervised classification using a Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was applied to prepare LULC maps of the watershed. The accuracy of the classified map was assessed using high-resolution data, and ground realities have been verified and ascertained through field observations. The results revealed a decreased trend in wetland, forest, shrubland and grassland in the period of 21 years (2000-2021) by -1148.71ha, -1073.26 ha, -1480.1 ha, and -87.73 ha, respectively. On the other hand, farmland and plantation areas followed an increasing trend. LST revealed decreasing trend in terms of mean and minimum with a fraction change of -0.018 and -0.073, whereas the maximum LST value shows an increasing trend with 0.021. The overall accuracy was 84.41%, with Kappa index of 76.13%. The analysis and findings of the study highlight important policy implications for sustainable LULC management in the study area. The study suggests the design and implementation of a guided natural resource policy, stopping the illegal expansion of farmland and educating society about the value of the sustainable management of habitat reserves.