The demand for groundwater resource estimation has increased radically attributed to the growing population and rapid urbanization. To analyze the groundwater scenario the present study aims to delineate the groundwater potential zones (GWPZ’s) using the integrated remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) based approach and AHP/ANP model in Western Himalaya. For the groundwater potentiality analysis, the thematic layers that were selected for the preparation of GWPZ map include lithology, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Topographic Position Index (TPI), slope, drainage density, lineament density, land use land cover and rainfall. The ﬁnal output GWPZ map can be categorized as high (39.57%), moderate (16.23%), low (31.91%), and very low (12.29%). In light of the growing demand for groundwater, the estimated area under good groundwater capacity appears to be inadequate. As a result, the state government in general, as well as the water resources and planning departments, must develop appropriate strategies to combat the impending water scarcity. To relieve pressure on groundwater resources, the study recommends increasing the use of surface water from the sub-regional basin. With the applicability of remote sensing and GIS technology coupled the integration of AHP/ANP model the comprehensive groundwater prospecting is achieved and groundwater as quintessential resource can be harnessed and utilized as anthropogenic stresses and changing climate has accentuated the demands for water consumption.
The aim of this paper is to examine and assess the portrayal of women and men in the visual contents of Moroccan English as Foreign Language (MEFL, henceforth) textbooks from a social semiotic perspective. Central to the analysis here is Goffman’s (1979) theoretical model of gender display recently heralded as a more powerful technique to unfold the semiotic positioning of women and men in visual images. The analysis of a corpus of photographic data has helped unveil an array of social and cultural misconceptions in discrimination of women. Female characters continue to be linked with submissiveness, absent-mindedness, and socio-psychological vulnerability. They are further presented associated with menial activities, low-status jobs, and oftentimes being positioned in the backstage behind men. The paper ends up presenting the conclusion along with some implications.
Quantitative morphometric analysis was carried out for Megech-Dirma, sub-basin of the Blue Nile, by estimating (1) linear, (2) aerial, and (3) relief aspects. An endeavor has been made to measure the Megech-Dirma watershed’s morphometric characteristics to implement conservation methods for soil and water properly. ASTER DEM has been used as input data for extracting morphometric parameters. Strahler’s classification scheme was used to classify the extracted drainage network in ArcGIS extension ArcMap 10.4. The watershed covers a total surface area of 1309.56 km2. The shape of the watersheds as calculated from elongation, circularity, and form factors reveals the elongated shape and the watersheds parade dendritic pattern. The sub-watersheds include third-order for Megech and sixth-order streams. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watersheds. The length of overland flow has a higher value (1.06) for Megech indicates low relief, whereas the values of length of overland flow, which are relatively low (0.20) for Dirma, indicate high relief. The drainage density of the study watershed was morphometrically analyzed and obtained 0.47 km/km2 for the Megech sub-basin, which indicates the basin is highly permeable and result in better underground water storage capacity and 2.46 for the Dirma sub-basin indicating very coarse and coarse channel, respectively. The ruggedness number for Megech and Dirma sub-basins was 0.56 and 0.07, respectively, indicating moderate and long, rugged topography, which could be susceptible to flash flood and soil erosion. The dissection index values for Megech 0.40 and 0.36 for Dirma show river sub-basins are moderately dissected. The ruggedness number is 0.56 for Megech implies moderate soil erosion probability, whereas the high infiltration number (14.29) for Dirma river shows the high runoff potential in the sub-basin. The findings of this study include drainage morphometry data that can be used to better understand watershed characteristics and serve as a framework for better planning, management, and decision-making to ensure the long-term use of watershed resources of water and soil.
The present study has been carried out to analyze the relationship between faulting and geomorphology of the Wadi Atyaruh to reveal the effect of structures on the morphology and distribution of the different karst features. Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques were applied to investigate morphological and topographic characteristics of Wadi Atyaruh, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM) Version 3 (V3) data. Dextral strike-slip fault is the main faulting type in the valley. Conjugate faults system has been found in the study area, which reveals the orientations of the principal stresses. Wadi Atyaruh consists mainly of Dernah formations (Eocene) and Quaternary deposits. Two types of Karren have been recognized, they are Rillen karren and solution basis which are well distributed in Darnah formation. Caves are found in the Darnah formation, the passages and chambers of these caves show a phreatic bedding plane, elliptical shape, laminar profiles, and rectangular and rounded top vadose profiles. The drainage system of this valley is sub-parallel drainage pattern to dendritic drainage pattern, indicating that the area has affected by strike-slip movement (Dextral), joints and it has steep slopes. interpretation of DEM of study area indicate moderate and high relief, low run off and high infiltrations due to the nature of the fracture carbonate rock, the basin have early mature stage of erosion development. Geomorphic parameters such as hill shade, slop, aspect, area shaded and elevation maps, was produced to describe geomorphic forms and processes of the Wadi Atyaruh. The complete morphometric analysis of drainage basin indicates that the given area is having good groundwater prospect.
The study assessed the accuracies of globally available Digital Elevation Models (DEM’s) i.e., SRTM v3, ASTER GDEM v2 and ALOS PALSAR DEM with respect to Topo-DEM derived from topographic map of 5m contour interval. 100 ground control points of the elevation data were collected with the help of kinematic hand held GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), randomly distributed over the study area. The widely used RMSE statistic, NCC correlation and sub-pixel-based approach were applied to evaluate the erroneous, correlation, horizontal and vertical displacement in terms of pixels for the individual Digital Elevation Model. Following these evaluations, SRTM DEM was found to be highly accurate in terms of RMSE and displacement compared to other DEMs. This study is intended to provide the researchers, GIS specialists and the government agencies dealing with remote sensing and GIS, a basic clue on accuracy of the DEMs so that the best model can be selected for application on various purposes of the similar region.