Article Title :
Nuptiality Status in West Bengal: A Demographic Appraisal
Women , Women Studies , West Bengal , Singulated mean age at marriage , Marriage rate , Marriage probability , Child Marriage
The present study deals with nuptiality pattern, probability of marriage and age at first marriage in different districts of West Bengal (India). The crude marriage rate was higher in Hugli district, while East Mednipur occupied top position in different district of West Bengal with regarding to general marriage rate. Hajnal’s Singulated Mean Age at Marriage (SMAM) was used to find out the mean age at marriage and marriage probability was estimated by construction of nuptiality table based on the census data (2011). The study revealed that the SMAM is 23 years in the state, while Murshidabad constitutes lower SMAM (21.7 years). The study also found that the marriage probability was 5 times higher among females (10-14 years) as compared to males. Awareness should be increased to reduce the harmful effects of marriage at a lower age. Policy makers and government should pay special attention to rural and marginalized communities by providing them economic benefits.
Darjeeling has the highest percentage of divorced and separated population in 2011.
The marriage probability among females aged 10-14 years is 5 times higher than the males that indicate the higher prevalence of child marriage among girls.
13 districts have below 20 years SMAM in West Bengal.
A range of policy and programmatic actions are needed by providing incentives among stakeholders to reduce the harmful practice of early marriage.
Census of India 2011. Social and cultural tables for India, C-series (C-2 Marital Status by Age and Sex) India, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi.
Chouhan, P. and Roy, A., 2018. Nuptiality status in North Eastern states of India: A comparative state level study. Research Journal of Social Science and Management, 7(11), 144-153.
Faust, K. A., 2004. Marriage, divorce, and family groups. In J. S. Siegel and D. A. Swanson (Eds.), The methods and materials of demography (191-210). New York: Elsevier Academic.
Ghosh, B. and Kar, A. M., 2010. Child marriage in rural West Bengal: Status and challenges. Indian Journal of Development Research and Social Action, 6(2), 1-23.
Goli, S., 2016. Eliminating Child Marriages in India: Progress and Prospects. Child Rights Focus, Action-Aid, New Delhi, India.
Hajnal, J., 1965. European marriage in perspective. In: DV Glass,DECEversley (Eds.): Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography.. London, Edward Arnold, 101-143.
Kadi, A. S., 1987. Age at marriage in India. Asia Pacific Population Journal, 2(1), 41-56.
Kuppuswamy, B., 1957. Opinion Regarding Marriage and Divorce. Bombay: Asian Publishing House.
Lassi, Z. S., Musavi, N. B., Maliqi, B., Mansoor, N., de Francisco, A., Toure, K. and Bhutta, Z. A., 2016. Systematic review on human resources for health interventions to improve maternal health outcomes: Evidence from low-and middle-income countries. Human Resources for Health, 14(1), 10.
Mathur, S., Greene, M. and Malhotra, A., 2003. Too Young to Wed: the Lives, Rights and Health of Young Married Girls.Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
Nour, N. M., 2006. Health consequences of child marriage in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(11), 1644-1649.
Pandey, A. and Nath, D. C., 2016. Nuptiality patterns in Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Law and Social Sciences, 5(1), 51-58.
Pandey, A. and Pandey, A., 1997. Analysing female nuptiality pattern at micro level: A case of Uttar Pradesh. IASSI Quarterly, 16(3-4), 1-16.
Pandey, A., 1984. Determinants of age at marriage for females in India. Janasamkhya, 2(2), 105-115.
Pandey, M. K., 2008. Association between marital status and health: Examining the role of age and gender. Munich Personal Repec Archive Paper No. 15923. Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi Enclave, Delhi, India.
Pathak, K. B., 1980. Law and age at marriage for females in India. The Journal of Social Work, 49(4), 407-416.
Singh, C., 1986. peoples’ perception on age at marriage in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Paper Presented at the Eleventh Annual Conference of IASP, 3-6, March, Varanasi, India.
UNICEF, 2005. Early Marriage- A Harmful Traditional Practice: A Statistical Exploration.