Article Title :
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Domestic and Irrigation Suitability from Upper Bhima Basin Western India: A Hydro-geochemical Perspective
Bhima basin , Drinking Water , Groundwater , Hydrogeochemical Analysis , Irrigation , Suitability Analysis , WHO
Major ion constituents present in groundwater are studied for shallow unconfined basaltic aquifer in order to understand the quality of groundwater resources and its impacts on inhabitants and irrigation. 30 groundwater samples collected from dug wells located in upper Bhima basin were analyzed to measure major cations and anions for establishing water quality index (WQI) and irrigation indices. The concentration of pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total dissolved solids and major cations and anions were analyzed. Groundwater types were detected using Piper’s trilinear diagram as Ca2+-HCO3−, Ca2+-Na+-HCO3−, mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl− and Ca2+-Cl− groups. High concentration (8 to 194 mg/L) of nitrate was found at some locations in the region. WQI shows 66% of the samples to be unfit for drinking purposes due to high nitrate content mostly introduced because of the anthropogenic activities. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes was determined using of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Permeability Index (PI), Kelly Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard (MH), Sodium (%) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC). Groundwater in the region is suitable for irrigation.
Major ion constituents in groundwater are analyzed for shallow unconfined basaltic aquifer to understand suitability for drinking purpose and irrigation.
Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Permeability Index(PI), Kelly’s Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard(MH), Sodium Percentage (Na%), Residual Sodium Carbonate(RSC) were detected and estimated for collected groundwater samples from selected wells.
Calculated values were compared with WHO standards and WQI estimated to determine suitability of water for drinking purposes.
About 60% samples show high Nitrate contamination due to intensive agricultural activities and unfit for drinking purposes.
Groundwater in the region is suitable for irrigation and require purification some places.
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